Squatters and Speculators
A rash of squatters and speculators descended on the East Bay. Horace Carpentier arrived from New York, in 1848. He squatted on- and then leased- land belonging to Vicente (Antonio Peralta's brother). Without owning the land, Carpentier proceeded to sell it and lay out downtown streets for a town he named "Oakland."
He was elected as Oakland first mayor in 1854 getting 368 votes – more than the total population.